Memetic leadership views memes as a conglomerate of atomic language. That is memes are constructed through the atomic language of homosapiens. The leadership approaches of transformational, situational and skill are compared and contrasted. Moreover, it is shown that the skill approach to leadership is a subset of the situational and the situational approach is a subset of transformational leadership. Memetic leadership takes from these leadership approaches and derives a simplified model. Key characteristics of the models and placed in an evolutionary context. Virulent skill is employed in memetic situations. Memetic leadership transforms an organization and it's employees by responding to an infinite aspect cloud.
EVOLUTION OF ATOMIC LANGUAGE
This is strictly a topical discussion of the evolution of atomic language. Florian Coulmas and Konrad Ehlich (1983) assert written language is seen as a photograph of spoken language and therefore of language in general. That is, alphabetic writings are sounds represented graphically (Coulmas &Ehlich, 1983). Thus, written language has an equivalence to phonetic language. Saussure (1916, as cited in Johansson, 2005) distinguished famously between 'langue' and 'parole', where langue is the systematic structure underlying parole, the actual speech events (p.5). Johansson delineates between four types of languages. Language two is langue. There is an emphasis on language one since its parts can be broken down and its frequencies studied, language two, and language three for the purpose of this discussion. Language one is a topical manifestation of language; language three represents the cognitive and neural process involved in processing language as it arises from language one and two (Johansson, 2005). The first of the languages cannot be decoupled from language three (Johansson, 2005).
The descriptive types of cultures that dominated have and do dominate society is matriarchal and patriarchal. Each culture type has distinctive sets of attributes; matriarchal society is characterized by sexual freedom, no written language, no weapons, and earth gods (Mormon, 1997). The characteristics of patriarchal society are sexual constraints, written language, weapons, and sky gods (Mormon, 1997). The transition from sexual freedom suggests a malleability of the Homosapien mind to evolve ethics in the fight against viral predators. Written language facilitated this process of survival since it was not present in matriarchal practices. There is a dichotomy in the evolutionary processes of language in its origin, development and evolution (Johansson, 2005). Johansson (2005) asserts the evolution of language two or langue is a matter of cultural or memetic evolution, whereas the evolution of language four is mainly a matter of normal biological evolution. However, I claim that language four is accumulate language one, a manifestation of language, since it is described as the utterances of child development. This poses a question to be answered. What does the development of symbols, the picture of language one look like through a lens of history?
The development of symbolic forms of communication from the period from 270 ky BP (Kilo Years Before Present) to the Mesopotamia and Egyptian era are of key interest (Wolfgang, 2004). Wolfgang Wildgen brings this evolution in to context, the time-scale of thousands and hundreds of years is too small for a purely biological interpretation of semiotic evolution, although the human brain witnessed an acceleration of change via gene expression rather than via genetic information. A trace of symbolism implies a semiotic transition from cave paintings to writing systems. An accelerated evolution of symbolic capacities (Wolfgang, 2004). The use of pigments for painting bodies, objects and other large surfaces are evident form archaeological sites from 270 ky BP to today's hunter-gathers in Kalahari (Wolfgang, 2004). The earliest stone engravings have dated to 70 ky BP (Wolfgang, 2004). Evolution of writing systems took place in the late Neolithic and bronze age (Wolfgang, 2004). Notice in examination of semiotic transition, cave paintings of images are broken into smaller and smaller parts. Wolfgang describes this transition:
One can clearly distinguish between a kind of self contained form giving, i.e. in the ornament, and iconic art, which uses realistic contours and colors perceived in external objects, animals, etc. A trend towards abstraction on the one side and towards mimesis on the other is present from the beginning and points to two basic dimensions of pictorial/sculptural activity: abstract signs (symbols) and natural (iconic) signs.
So what are these abstract signs modeled after? There are many hints in both linguistics and philosophy. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) derived the term “logical atomism.” Logical atomism takes into consideration both the metaphysical view and methodology as his mechanics for philosophy. As an applied mathematician, the structure of language is suspicious. The evolution of written communication shows a transition from a macro illustrations of objects being described to an atomic representation of objects. That is, cave paintings transitioned into atomic structures that form molecules of language.
If language is modeled after the atomic elements, there must be both a smoking gun and the frequencies of language must share the same frequencies of the periodic table of elements. As for the smoking gun, there must be a mechanism in the brain that can detect the composition of the atomic elements in the earths crust. Dr. Rodrigue (2007) gives the fact there are ninety-two elements that occur naturally in the earth's crust (and a few very short-lived others that have been produced in laboratories). Of one hundred eighteen elements listed on the periodic table of elements, the ninety-two elements in the earths crust represent seventy-eight percent of periodic table. The smoking gun is a detection system within the brain at the quantum level. Dr. Roger Penrose (1999) and Dr. Stuart Hameroff suggest that consciousness in homosapiens results from quantum gravity effects in the microtubules; a component of the cytoskeleton. Thus, there is quantum activity within the brain that may act as a quantum detection system. Quantum nonlocality surfaced in Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's EPR paradox. Quantum mechanics predicts an entanglement, or effects in one location is seen in anther location that is spatially separated. This violates Einstein's principle of locality or local realism (Braungardt, 2004). Therefore, the entanglement at the quantum level enables animal brains to detect the universe around them.
The notion of quantum nonlocality demonstrates the classical assumptions of physics are incorrect, and there is interconnectedness. Therefore, if language is modeled after the atomic nature of our universe, the frequencies of the phonetic alphabet should match or resemble that of the periodic table. Moreover, a phonetic sample survey of the languages of earth will again resemble that of the periodic table (Appendix A). There are three major subdivision of the periodic table, metals, semimetals, and nonmetals. Also, there are three major subdivisions of language, consonants, semivowels, vowels. An empirical meditation demonstrates the plausible relevance in forming a hypotheses. Consider the English non phonetic alphabet. There are two semivowels in the English language (Latham, 2006). There are five vowels, and eighteen consonants with a total of twenty-five letters in the alphabet altogether. This gives the frequencies of seventy-two percent for consonants, twenty percent for vowels, and eight percent for semivowels. The division of the periodic table of elements based on the ninety-two elements in the earths crust yields seventy-two percent for metals, eight percent for metalloid (compared with semivowels), and eighteen percent for nonmetals. Given that there are sixty-eight metals, seven metalloid, and seventeen nonmetals; for a total of ninety-two elements in the earth crust. Such meditations can lead to empirical models, which in turn lead to investigation through statistical means (Appendix B). If our language is modeled atomically from the earths crust by the brain, then it is possible for other societies on distant planets to evolve the same way.
It is implied that life on other planets experience an evolutionary characteristic in which language is modeled after the elements in the crust of their planet. Cosmologist may speculate that since energy is conserved in the brain, i.e. the conservation of energy, entities on life supporting planets may model their language after those elements within their planets crust and not throughout the universe. If the planets crust contains a deficient amount of elements, the language may itself be deficient. If the crust contains elements beyond that which earth can sustain, then the language may hold an eloquent complexity. Burdened by the fact that limited amounts of energy is produced by a processing structure such as the brain, limits the reachability of nonlocal events in terms of biology. Constraints dictated by the conservation of energy experienced by the organism is a determinant.
Evolution of language derives macro pictorial representation of real-world events into molecular representations constructed by the atomic alphabets of language. Atomizing the macro into the micro, i.e. pictorial representation into atomic symbols forming molecular representations, is an evolutionary process including variation. In light of the atomic language hypotheses, alphabets can be fully structured to form new molecules of meaning. The completion of an atomic alphabet can lead to more powerful descriptions of the universe and memetics facilitating the adaptability of homosapiens. This suggests homosapiens are molecular evolutionary facilitators of memes. This is the equivalent of molecular evolution with respect to protein structures in genetic coding. Now memetic evolution will not be a mindless response to sexual viral predators, or the preditation within tribal conflicts, it will be by design. Or at least, there is now an awareness of the process. This process will inevitably continue to a quantum language. A quantum alphabet will evolve in relation to the subatomic particles. New frontiers of quantum languages, quantum mathematics, and quantum music are on the horizon. Including quantum memetic evolution and design.
The power of imitation is homosapiens strength (Blackmore, 1999). If someone has a western accent, many times other individuals will mimic the accented speech. This is the power of imitation. This imitation manifest itself in fashion, landscaping, car selection with an endless list to ensue. This unit of imitation, that something that is passed on, is defined as a meme (Blackmore, 1999). Richard Dawkins's book The Selfish Gene set the stage for memes. Memes are compared to genes, the sound implication is intentional, that have chemical instructions in which to be copied (Blackmore, 1999). Memes in light of atomic language may themselves have a form of chemical instructions. Not only is it true that the frequencies of the worlds languages are shared, it is true that the number system shares the same frequency of the periodic table. Of course, due to variation, some languages will exist as outliers in the statistical analysis of the frequencies.
Empirical data supports such a hypothesis (Appendix B). Homosapiens have modeled language after the atomic elements forming molecules of words transmitting memes. There is a distinction between replicators and vehicles for meme transmission. Susan Blackmore (1999) describes a replicator as anything of which copies are made, including 'active replicators' whose nature affects their chances of their being copied again. Vehicles are the carriers that protect their cargo (Blackmore, 1999). The replicators most are aware of today is DNA. Dawkins (1976 as cited in Blackmore, 1999), suggested that wherever it arises, anywhere in the universe, 'all life evolves by the differential survival of replicating entities.' Since the sophistication of language can be estimated by the elements that exist in the planets crust supporting life, the molecular development of the words and memes used by an alien life form may be estimated as well. Thus, memes with respect to the development of an alien culture can be better understood through their unit of imitation. This may one day form the basis of Star Treks universal translator.
Memes are viral like. They have radiation effects and populations can have immune functions as well. For example, in 1964 Ubaldo Ragona's, 'The Last Man on Earth', written by Richard Matheson and William F. Lei, depict blood thirsty zombies attacking a man of science, Dr. Robert Morgan (IMDb, 1990-2008). Dr. Robert Morgan played by Vincent Price, seeks to find a cure for the bacterially infected dead. He is the only survivor of the global plague (IMDb, 1990-2008). In an age of technical transformation, science was a dangerous notion for people. Particularly, Darwin's theory of evolution, technical innovation, artificial intelligence. Samuel L. Skalak (2007-2008) give this account of the nineteen-sixties:
The 1960s did not just have an impact on America itself. Social upheaval was present in other countries like Britain, France, W. Germany, Japan, China, Mexico, and Canada. It was, as said best by Irwin and Debi Unger, editors and authors of 'The Times Were a Changin', the Sixties Reader (1998) “a time when events went into overdrive.” Riots protesting for reform broke out all over the world.
Like a virus or in the case of 'The Last Man on Earth', bacteria, infected the hosts of a global population with an unimaginable speed. That with respect to a plague. How can we guard against such preditation?
Not all memes are destructive. In fact, Edward Lorenz,s chaos theory spread world wide to the advantage of many university theorist. However, the fear of science is real. For a viral radiation, there must be an immunology for such infections. This immunology would mimic the immune system by producing a group of memes that act and behave collectively. This would be a body of knowledge, philosophy, religion, society or culture. And we do see resistance to ideas, or memes from individuals involved collectively as a group engaged in a philosophical practice. These practices, or groups can be so strong as to kill emerging science or ideas, memes, with their immunology. For example, Galileo Galilei was held prisoner, under house arrest by the Catholic Church in his later life. Galileo's memes of heliocentrism were almost lost forever due to the immunological nature of the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church protected it's teachings by identifying, and fortunately in Galileo's case not killing, only suppressing the meme infection. Detection of meme infection is difficult. Memes, like virus, have rapid evolution and may go undetected by a cultures immunological motivations.
Memes are viewed as jumping from brain to brain (Blackmore, 1999). Dawkins (1976, as cited in Blackmore, 1999) wrote about religions as groups of memes with a high survival value, infecting whole societies with belief in a God or an afterlife. The key concept is groups of memes. To further the definition, memetic leaders can view these memes individually or as groups of memes related to their leadership role within the organization. These individual or grouping of memes become aspects that place demands on the leadership roles forming paradigms of leadership withing organizations. Aspects impart meaning, feeling, and mood (Answer Corporation, 1999). Our brains carry memetic replicators for the transference of aspects.
Memes within an organization will always have their natural flow. Conversely, leadership should always be aware of how these memetic aspects affect the organization. Aspects are imitated throughout the organization. Blackmore (1999) defines 'imitation' in the 'broad sense' in that something must have been copied. As related to leadership, aspects are the skill set and leadership practices that have been copied. In contrast, organizational memes include habits, skills, organizational jargon, songs and add infinitum. Each meme and aspect according to Blackmore (1999) has evolved in its own unique way with its own history, but each of them is using your behavior to get itself copied. Memetic leadership views aspects as an infinite aspect cloud. The infinite aspect cloud places particular demands on the leadership role to be dealt with by algorithmic, or modulated solutions that already exist within the brain (Malik, 1998). The memetic leader is emergent given the aspects of their role. So how do leaders get their memes across.
How about sex and lesbians? Or some yummy chocolate! Or, I want to rule the world! In Blackmore's (1999) chapter 'An orgasm saved my life,' Richard Brodie (1996 as cited in Blackmore, 1999) tells us successful memes are memes that deal with sex, food, and power all press powerful meme, 'buttons' because of these topic in our evolutionary past. These memes are specifically concerned with genetic survival (Blackmore, 1999). As a leader in business, it is imperative to know what memes are concerned with. However, it is also imperative to know what memes make up immunological meme groups. Sexual harassment, Disability Rights, and Discrimination Laws are all memes in attempt to immunize infected hosts or prevent infections. Social and religious groups also have memetic immunologic memes. For example, anti-homosexual sentiments, women's rights, and the list adds to infinity. One fact stands out. Among the infinitely many facets spawned by immunological means, it is still only immunology. Thus leaders have a concept to recognize which aspects they are dealing with. Therefore, a locus of leadership radiates from a single point. Not an infinitely long list of characteristics of a leadership approach. This greatly simplifies leadership roles.
Leaders are handy caped by the fact that memes are a function of history. That is, what is known today are those memes with their own evolution and history. For example, if the tradition in management is of a transactional nature, an introduction of transformational leadership are memes fighting selection forces, and algorithmic with variation, selection and retention within the framework of a mindless algorithm. Moreover, culture has coalesced memetic collectives that fight against the new memes of transformational leadership. Not all leaders are willing to shed there transactional ways and replace their leadership approach with a system that requires intimate interaction with employees. Blackmore (1999) asserts natural selection can ensure that organisms are more or less well adapted to the conditions prevailing at the time, and as times change selection pressures change, so the better adapted organism survive (p. 122). Leaders are adapted to the current conditions of their organizations. The conditions of the organization prevailing at the time. Thus, subtle changes in the organization and organizational behavior leads to selection pressure. An effective steadfast management team that are successfully change in the face of changing climate conditions. They are those leaders that are effective at passing memes. Creativity and innovation can only be those memes that have historic value. As a manifestation of natural selection, mate choice emerged to reflect those with effective memetic imitation (Blackmore, 1999). That is, those individuals that are skilled orators. This translates to the charismatic leader. An aspect of transformational leadership. Blackmore (1999) says, in an early hunter-gatherer society a man who was especially good at imitation would have been able to copy the latest hunting skills or stone tool technology and hence would have gained a biological advantage.
TRANSFORMATIONAL, SITUATIONAL AND SKILL APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
Transformational leadership came into sharp focus during the 1980s (Northouse, 2007). The “New Leadership” paradigm which considers the affective and charismatic aspects of leadership (Northouse, 2007). Affective (Answers Corporation, 1999) is defined as influenced by or resulting from the emotions. Charisma (Answers Corporation, 1999) is define to be the power or quality of attracting.
Addressing emotion first, Susan Blackmore (1999) states individuals who suffer from frontal lobe damage of the brain, are far from turning into super-rational decision-makers, able to plan their lives without all the irritating detractions of unwanted emotions, they become almost paralyzed with indecision. Rush W. Dozier (1998) observes that people with right obitofrontal frontal damage of the brain are often cheerfully unconcerned about the terrible brain injury they have suffered (p.183). This is due to a void of conscious perceptions such as fear, hate and other such emotions (Dozier, 1998). Whereas the left is responsible for emotions such as joy, and optimism (Dozier, 1998). Clearly, a cheerfully optimistic patient with right obitofrontal damage has lost the checks from the right brain to balance emotions of the left. Thus, in light of the above discussion, the affective aspects of leadership are mandate. In terms of memetics, in order for transmission to be effective, Blackmore (1999) claims memes depends critically on human preferences, attention, emotions and desires-in other words, the stuff of evolutionary psychology. Secondly, charisma is an essential element in leadership facilitating memetic transmission. Many of the problems arise in leadership due to the miss application of emotions.
Dozier's cheerfully unconcerned brain damaged demonstrates this fact. We would find it odd someone would be cheerfully optimistic when told of their existing brain damage. However, when the patient has lost the ability to balance their emotions, there is simply no check from the right frontal lobe. Fear is often seen as a negative emotion, however, in such a situation, it would seem appropriate. It is true that our social, religious, and overall emotional bias construct is a morph of emotions that yield many unfit for leadership. Understanding the assessment and management of combat stress leads to a thought experiment of misshaped emotional composition. Observations show a majority of friends and family show fear, disgust and cry at the through of a loved one entering military service during times of war. These emotions single fear and stress in the brain of the enlisted. This makes no sense in terms of survivability and lethality studies. This truth leads to reduced probability of survivability in combat. It is a common fact individuals gain both notariaty and wealth in war efforts were there would none otherwise. The brazen solder should be lifted with pride and honor in the service of their country. There should never be remorse for engagements of the battle field. Transformational leadership transforms people (Northouse, 2007). Northouse (2007) describes transformational leadership as concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standards, and long-term goals and includes assessing followers' motives, satisfying their needs, and treating them as full human beings.
Situation (Answers Corporation, 1999) is defined to be one's place and direction relative to one's surroundings. It is logical to assume that an individual is in a place seeking direction relative to surroundings at any moment. Therefore, situational leadership coupled with an emotional response to those surroundings links together situational and transformational leadership directly. Situational leadership was the brain child of Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard in the 1960s. Northouse (2007) describes situational leadership stressing that leadership is composed of both a directive and a supportive dimensions; and each has to be applied appropriately in a given situation. The key words are applied appropriately. As that which fits so nicely with transformational leadership, a leader need detect the needs of an employee in a particular situation. It is assumed that the skills and motivations of employees change through time (Northouse, 2007). Northouse (2007) give the premise that leaders should change the degree to which they are they are directive or supportive to meet the changing needs of subordinates. This is precisely the premise of tutoring and mentoring. That is the employee becomes an independent learner and mentor of others needing guidance. Northouse (2007) continues, in brief, the essence of situational leadership demands that a leader match his or here style to the competence and commitments of the subordinates. In reflection of transformational leadership, the behavior of leaders in situational leadership roles are wielding transformational leadership techniques. I claim that situational leadership is a subset of transformational leadership. The premise to this argument will use the affective element of transformational leadership, situation, and directive (task) and supportive (relationship) elements. Affective is the very makeup of operative decision making. Homosapiens function through affective means within situational environments. All tasks and relationships are handled through affective means. Therefore, situational leadership is a subset of transformational leadership. This was most likely implied in the supportive roles of situational leadership.
Like most leadership approaches, it is implied that an implementation of a set of rules will cure all leadership ills. However, the true metric of leadership is an understanding of the evolutionary homosapien brain. Many times the implication of helping employees achieve success is devalued in an abrasive combustion of values and ethics that contrast an individuals emotional composition. In order to both earn credibility and notariaty as a leader, there need be a great skill wielded in the implementation of the leadership role. We all have leadership capabilities with in us.
Steven Pinker in his book How the Mind Works, gives a algorithmic modulation of the brain (Malik, 1998). If the brain through natural selection contains modules for mathematics, language, and other functions, then it contains algorithms for leadership. To overcome the polymorphic displacements of emotions damping leadership capabilities through inculturation, limited skill sets, commitment and training will be mandate. The skill approach to leadership Northouse (2007) claims that although personality certainly plays an integral role in leadership, the skills approach suggests that knowledge is needed for effective leadership. Research implies, according to Northouse (2007), a leader's effectiveness depends on the leader's ability to solve complex organizational problems. The disassembly of leadership may have its roots in philosophy and religion. Since philosophy can play a role in emotional morphism, a displacement of emotions away from balance can lead to the psychological development of a labor class dominated by its leaders. For example, the caste system of India illustrates a philosophy leading to the subordination of tribal communities. This emotional morphism will never allow the labor class emotional balance and freedom to become effective leaders. The skill approach to leadership is a subset of the situational approach which in turn is a subset of transformational leadership.
Katz's (As cited by Northouse, 2007) skill leadership approach was an attempt to transcend the trait problem by addressing leadership as a set of developable skills. Katz's idea has validity since we know leadership exists in the brain as an evolutionary mechanism. However, the social, cultural and religionous constraints could never be filtered out successfully. If in every moment we live in a situation, then skill in handling situations are beneficial. If an individual must chose a set of skills in application to a situation, then that skill is chosen through affective means. Since we use our skill set in situations, our skill set is a subset of that situational set. An affective response to situation, and affective selection of a skill applied, circumscribes both sets within transformational leadership. Thus, the universal set of transformational leadership include the sets of situational leadership and the skill approach is a subset of the situational approach.
As an example, the skill approach outlines several interesting characteristics. Skill leadership theory is emergent from research conducted in the 1990s. Funded by the U.S. Army and Department of Defense, the research set its focus on problem-solving skills in organizations (Northouse, 2007). Mumford's team derived five characteristics for the skill based model: competencies, individual attributes, leadership outcomes, career experiences, and environmental influences (Northouse, 2007). The individual attributes, general cognitive ability, crystallized cognitive ability, motivation and personality are products of environment and mentoring. Some transformational pressure shaped a motivated individual. In turn, general cognitive ability was crystallized into an operational leader. Moreover, the competencies, problem-solving skills, social judgment skills, and knowledge are all situational modifiers. Situations are dynamic and can change discretely or continuously. How situations change rely on the competencies of the leader. Each resulting in leadership outcomes. Leadership outcomes, effective problem solving and performance are within a transformational context.
¬CRITICISMS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL, SITUTATIONAL AND SKILL LEADERSHIP
Working inward out, the skill approach to leadership is criticized as an unbounded theory. That is according to Northouse (2007), by including motivations, critical thinking, personality, and conflict resolution, the skills approach addresses more than just leadership. By including the skill approach as a subset of transformational leadership, this bound is on leadership loses justification. Since transformational leadership by definition addresses the individual, the skill approach characterizes leadership functions related to effective problem solving and performance. Knowledge is wisdom. The bounds suggested by the critics of the skill approach, may be derived from the social distrust of personal or transformational involvement. Conversely, this involvement may be implied by the original research. However, the criticism of complexity is justified. The large number of components in the skills approach gives it a holistic quality (Northouse, 2007). Conversely, the use of wisdom is never addressed. Most leaders that are transactional do not employ wisdom.
Criticisms of the skill approach can be absorbed into the situational set. General, or fluid, and crystallized cognitive ability add a breadth that seem boundless (Northouse, 2007). Fluid and crystallized are defined by John Horn (1982, p. 112 as cited in Plomin, )
Crystallized intelligence, Gc, an indicator of one's appropriation of the intelligence of culture, [refers to the] organizations of basic processes brought about by acculturation, as realized through influences associated with selection/deselection, positive transfer, avoidance learning, the configurations of interpersonal groupings of significant others, and the climate for inquiry, as well as physiological factors.... A second major dimension represents an organization of mental resources produced by incidental learning and physiological influences that operate largely independently of those of acculturation. This is fluid intelligence.
Clearly intelligence of culture and an organization of mental resources are boundless properties. Northouse (2007) asserts situational leadership recognizes and stresses that there is not one best style of leadership: instead, leaders need to be flexible and adapt their style to the requirements of the situation. Furthermore, transformational leadership critics claim that the approach lacks conceptual clarity (Northouse, 2007). As with many of the leadership approaches, the plethora of values and characteristics are endless. Memetic leadership seeks not to clearly define or set a boundary on the aspects of the leadership model. Only to solicit a group of memes for effective leadership transforming organizational situations with skill. The survival mechanism seen in tribal cultures who's best practice is to spread memes. Thus contributing to there genetic success.
Very much like packets of information sent to the Internet cloud, memetic leadership views the outer boundary of leadership as an infinite aspect cloud. Taking lessons from computer science, Awais Rashid (2004) describes Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) techniques:
These techniques offer systematic means to manage cross-cutting concerns such as distribution, security, and persistence that cannot be easily modularized using conventional techniques such as object-orientation (p. xi).
An aspect-oriented model within memetic leadership approach seeks to transmit memes that what Rashid (2004) refers to as cross-cutting concerns as they cut across other concerns in a system. This benefits leaders with respect to a congruous conceptual model of the organization throughout its evolution. As demands emerge on leadership roles from the infinite aspect cloud, dynamic memetic leadership paradigms emerge in response. This greatly reduce the need to conceptualize leadership roles in terms of a finite set of rules, behaviors, or traits that exponentially expand to infinity. Infinity is dealt with as a fact of memetic leadership. Instead, aspects from the cloud place demands on leadership roles in which dynamic transformational leadership paradigms are formed. The transformational leadership paradigms are individualized in both concept and abstraction. In addition, multiple paradigms can inhabit an organization. Since the demands on leaders within an organization differ with respect to their position, aspects of the leadership role will differ as well. Since one set of leadership elements, or aspects, will intersect with others, elements of leadership paradigms will be present in both. Thus, memetic leadership groups can view their leadership roles as a set of interacting aspects emergent from an infinite cloud.
This addresses the complaint of transformational leadership expressed by Northouse (2007) as covering such a wide range, including creating a vision, motivating, being a change agent, building trust, giving nurturance, and acting as a social architect, to name a few. Rather than a leader looking into a leadership role, the leader looks out at aspects that effect the leadership role and emerges through transformation. Memetic leaders seek affective balance and trust the leader algorithms within the brain to developed strategies as an axiomatic fact that lies within all homosapiens. These algorithms are the modulations described by Steven Pinker. There is no circumscribed boundary of memetic leadership.
Northouse (2007) gives the following definition: transformational leadership is the process whereby a person engages with another and creates a connection that raises the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower. Bryman (1992, as cited in Northouse (2007) views transformational leadership as part of the “New Leadership” paradigm, which gives more attention to the charismatic and affective elements of leadership. Conversely, Bryman claims that both transformational and charismatic leadership are used interchangeably (Northouse, 2007). However, in this discussion, the charismatic component will be included in the definition of transformational leadership. Charismatic will be defined as, “the power or quality of attracting (Answers Corporation, 1999).”
The misconceptions of charismatic personality traits need be addressed. The Answer Corporation (1999) gives one of the charismatic definitions as a rare personality quality attributed to leaders who arouse fervent popular devotion and enthusiasm. Jonathan Rauch (2003) claims extroverts , such as George W. Bush and Bill Clinton, are overrepresented in politics, a profession in which only the garrulous are really comfortable. Bush and Clinton are considered charismatic leaders. Joshua Jipson and Aubrey Immelman of St. John's University claims Bush's outgoing, charismatic personality equips him well.... Donald T. Phillips gives an in depth description of Clinton's charisma in his book, THE CLINTON CHARISMA: A Legacy of Leadership. The context of charismatic, as a rare personality quality my be supported erroneously through special cases of extroversion. Rauch (2003) claims extroverts are energized by people, and will wilt and fade when alone. Therefore it is necessary to eliminate hype from charismatic to be viewed only as the power or quality of attracting. For example, an employer who runs an add for employment wields reward power in terms of a paycheck in return for the services of the employee. Therefore, the charismatic definition is satisfied with the power side of the disjunctive statement. Referent power is not necessary, however, the reward power is sufficient to satisfy the requirements under the definition. This is the equivalence of a person engages with another and creates a connection. Under this definition, a leader possesses the power or quality of attracting an engagement with an individual creating a connection.
Rather than viewing leadership approaches as boundless, containing trait values, applicable to only one set of organizations such as the military, and ambiguous conceptualizations, a mechanism design may give a global approach to leadership application. The underlying axiomatic assumption is leadership can rely on the brains inherent modularized leadership faculties for direction through systematic study. A black box algorithm that has been selected for during the course of evolution. This black box is reliant on description of Charles Darwin's (2004) 'greatest happiness principle.'
It was assumed formerly by philosophers of the derivative school of morals that the foundation of morality lay in a form of Selfishness; but more recently the 'Greatest happiness principle' has been brought prominently forward. It is, how-ever, more correct to speak of the latter principle as the standard and not as the motive of conduct. With a few exceptions, write as if there must be a distinct motive for every action, and that this must associated with some pleasure or displeasure. But man seems often to act impulsively, that is from instinct or long habit, without any consciousness of pleasure, in the same manner as does probably a bee or ant, when it blindly follows its instincts.
Thus the greatest happiness principle is instinct that gears homosapiens toward emotional balance and wellbeing, rather than an emotional morphisms creating happiness. That is, emotional morphisms that lead away from balance, contrast the instinct of the greatest happiness principle, leading to stress or abnormal psychology. Note that this does not argue for intuition. In fact, systematics study in replacement of general intuitive actions as outlined in organizational behavior remains valid. Not until all the facts are in, can the fulcrum of the greatest happiness principle balancing the wheel of emotions be consulted in the decision making process. Wisdom ensues from knowledge.
Darwin (2004) states, the highest possible stage in moral culture is when we recognize that we ought to control our thoughts, and 'not even in inmost thought to think against the sins that made the past so pleasant to us.' Marcus Aurelius (1869, as cited by Darwin, 2004) long ago said, 'such as are thy habitual thoughts, such also will be the character of thy mind; for the soul is dyed by the thoughts.' Herbert Spencer (1868, as cited by Darwin, 2004) says, 'I believe that the experiences of utility organised and consolidated through all past generations of the human race, have been producing corresponding modification, which, by continued transmission and accumulation, have become in us certain faculties of moral intuition-certain emotions responding to right and wrong conduct which have no apparent basis in the individual experiences of utility.' Memetic leadership addresses the fundamental motivations of the brain.
Leaders need to be as Blackmore (1999) states, need to be the best imitators or the best users and spreaders of memes. Using meme buttons, followers are transformed into their role or function of employment. These buttons include sex, food and power. The time consuming process of transformation is removed by cloning. Memetic leaders seek to clone others building a network of mentors that develop other memetic leaders. There are two considerations in spreading memes effectively. Each situation has its weights of infection or immunological attributes. The skill in dealing with meme transmission are not only the functional skills of doing business, for the memetic leader, it is the skill of dealing with immunological resistance to organizational functionality. The skill of doing business is axiomatic and particular to a specific industry, a normal vector of the skill of memetic transmission is leadership. This skill will be defined as virulent skill. Virulent skill deals with the degree to which a meme is infectious. It seeks to break down the immunological mechanisms of the follower host. Through systematic study of organizational issues, a knowledge base is developed. Including Darwin's greatest-happiness principle in the wisdom developed from the knowledge base, virulent skill is developed in dealing with the aspect cloud with respect leadership. The natural algorithms present in the brain are utilized for the deployment of wisdom in dealing with ever present situations. Thus, an evolutionary ethic emerges particular to an organization. Rather than cultural ethics employed to form a caste on the organization. The mission of virulent skill has only one purpose, to fight immunological resistance and maximize the virulent nature of memes. This greatly simplifies the definition of virulent skill. The end result is a clone hosts that fights immunological resistance spreading virulent memes. Thus gives us a clue as to a definition of a memetic follower. Part of that definition of memetic followers are clone hosts with virulent skills. Virulent skills help leaders and followers to deal with situations that lay in organizational roles and in a globalized economy.
Situations deal with organizational situations, personal situations, political situations and add infinitum. Conversely, memetic situations follows the situational approach to leadership seeking development along a continuum. However, the continuum is absent of commitment. The virulent skill of leadership is considered to have secured the commitment of the memetic follower through memes. Only a survey of commitment and its shift from its locus need be monitored. The role of the greatest-happiness principle is considered binding in leader-follower relationships. A shift from a locus of commitment, demonstrates other memes have infected the host and need be addressed. There are five key modalities in dealing with situations. That is to create a knowledge base of the situations that face individuals in a particular role. Elicitation, collection, analysis, modeling, and validation are necessary.
The modalities become that of a therapeutic agent. Elicitation draws out concerns in situations. A truth table can be derived from logic derived from a collection of facts. The analysis or individual parts can be set up for systematic study. Emerging from systematic study is the model. The model can then be validated in its application. Memes can then infect other hosts cutting across the concerns of the organization. Thus, the situational approach to leadership is simplified to include virulent skills in cutting across organizational concerns Memetic leaders strive to individualize the clone host. In situations, directive and supportive behaviors lead to autonomy. Each clone host is a dominant entity within their domains, highly adaptive to evolutionary stresses with a greater-happiness. Each with the ability to deal with infinite aspects from an aspect cloud. The transformational aspects of the memetic leader include the affect and charismatic applications as defined previously. However, an emphases the aspect of full human beings.
More precisely, to treat ourselves, the leader, and the follower as full homosapiens. Rather than a set of rules, there area few principles. Transformational aspects promotes Darwin's greatest-happiness principle amongst 'us' and 'them' leadership enterprise. The greatest-happiness principle strives individualize the role of the follower. Creating a dominance of the domain held by the clone host without the exclusion of other individuals. Another principle arises in transformation. That is the virulent principle. The virulent principle transfers memes that are beneficial for the clone host. The virulent memes seek to transform the organization in a positive way fighting the immunological nature of 'us' and 'them' organisms. Mentoring, long-term goals, evolutionary values and other aspects are addressed out the ligament concern for the well being of employees and the effective transmission of memes. These algorithm emerge naturally from the brain. Therefore, an algorithm principle states that the wisdom to deal with different transformational problems arise naturally through systematic study. Time and cost are of major concern to organizations. The time is minimized by clone host development. The time principle implies the clone host will dedicate their time and knowledge in replicating other clone host building a larger network. This in turn minimizes the cost of training through a natural radiation of leadership. Since an employees well being is the locus, commitment to the organization is considered an axiomatic bond. These are considered the principles of transformation the memetic leader employs. Does formal organization policy have a place in memetic leadership? The answer would be yes.
Much of what we find are endless description of leadership approaches. The formalization of organizations seeks to integrate people, divisions, and other organizations together as a force in the market place. Each type of organization has different production needs. For example, warehousing seeks to meet the needs of demand. Logistics fights shortages, the bullwhip effect, and through different transactional modalities track shipments and inventory levels. The transactional nature of they system is called a spine. The spine is laid within the organization is strictly transactional in nature. The spine has organisms of clone host to deal the day-to-day activities of the organization. Memetic leaders draw from an aspect cloud to cut across concern of the organization in dealing with spine. Therefore, the formalization can be viewed as skeletal in nature.
Memes lay at the very nature of homosapiens. An atomic model of language places homosapiens in the context of our universe. We are truly star children struggling for survival. Family's have radiated aggression outward for the harnessing of resources. Their husbandry, has lead to 'us' and 'them' organizations that exclude individuals through discrimination or affective prejudice. Darwin claims that the greatest-happiness principle will ultimately win out. However, leaders need the tools to lead within an evolutionary context. By utilizing a few principles, memetic leadership will bring the greatest-happiness principle to fruition.